By contrast, a few nouns are slightly more complex in their forms. Declension overview. Just as verbs in Latin are conjugated to indicate grammatical information, Latin nouns and adjectives that modify them are declined to signal their roles in sentences. The endings -aṁ, -at, -āu mark the cases associated with these meanings. Traditionally this is done by dividing them into six major cases, each of which has multiple uses. Similarly, names borrowed from other languages show comparable distinctions: Andrew and Andrea, Paul and Paula, etc. Adjectives are not declined for case in Modern English, though they were in Old English. Conventionally, Russian nouns have six cases: nominative case, genitive case, dative case, accusative case, instrumental case, and prepositional case. The case-marking postpositions of Hindi are mentioned in the table below on the left, and the declensions of the genitive and semblative postpositions are on the right: Example sentence using noun, pronoun, and postpositional declensions: Sanskrit, another Indo-European language, has eight cases: nominative, vocative, accusative, genitive, dative, ablative, locative and instrumental. A way of categorizing nouns, pronouns, or adjectives according to the inflections they receive. There are eight case-marking postpositions in Hindi and out of those eight the ones which end in the vowel -ā (the semblative and the genitive postpositions) also decline according to number, gender, and case.[8][9]. Declension is an important aspect of language families like American (such as Quechuan), Indo-European (German, Lithuanian, Latvian, Slavic, Sanskrit, Latin), Bantu (Zulu, Kikuyu), Semitic (Modern Standard Arabic), Finno-Ugric (Hungarian, Finnish, Estonian), Turkic (Turkish). Given below is the declension paradigm of Latin puer ‘boy’ and puella ‘girl’: From the provided examples we can see how cases work: Hindi has three noun cases (nominative, oblique, and vocative)[6][7]and five pronoun cases (nominative, accusative, dative, genitive, and oblique). The act of declining a word; the act of listing the inflections of a noun, pronoun or adjective in order. alumnus (masculine singular) and alumna (feminine singular). Loan words from other languages, particularly Latin and the Romance languages, often preserve their gender-specific forms in English, e.g. Jakobson analyses the relationship between Russian declension classes and gender specification in order to show how morphological signs belonging to the inflectional system may have zero content. In linguistics, declension is the changing of the form of a word, generally to express its syntactic function in the sentence, by way of some inflection. Pronouns in English have even more complex declensions. For example: Whereas nouns do not distinguish between the subjective (nominative) and objective (oblique) cases, some pronouns do; that is, they decline to reflect their relationship to a verb or preposition, or case. Additionally, suffixes such as -ess, -ette, and -er are sometimes applied to create overtly gendered versions of nouns, with marking for feminine being much more common than marking for masculine. There are five important cases for Latin nouns: nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, and ablative. Consider, for example, the forms of the noun girl: Most speakers pronounce all of the forms other than the singular plain form (girl) exactly the same (though the elided possessive-indicating s of the plural possessive may be realised as [z] in some speakers' pronunciations, being separated from the plural-indicating s normally by a central vowel such as [ɨ̞]). You may redistribute it, verbatim or modified, providing that you comply with the terms of the CC-BY-SA. You may redistribute it, verbatim or modified, providing that you comply with the terms of the CC-BY-SA. For nouns, in general, gender is not declined in Modern English, or at best one could argue there are isolated situations certain nouns may be modified to reflect gender, though not in a systematic fashion. masculine, neuter, feminine), and a number of other grammatical categories. The nominative case is the subject case, and this is considered the basic form of a word: The genitive case is similar to the English possessive case, and it often corresponds to English of or the possessive ending ’s: The dative case is similar to the English indirect object, and it often corresponds to the words to or towards: The accusative case is like the English direct object: The instrumental case indicates the agent or the instrument of an action, and it often corresponds to English with or by: The prepositional case always takes a preposition, and it often indicates location: The partitive-genitive case, when different from the genitive, means part of something, some of something: The locative case, when it differs from the prepositional case, indicates location: The vocative case survives in only a few words of a religious nature, and this case marks the person being addressed. In linguistics, declension is the changing of the form of a word, generally to express its syntactic function in the sentence, by way of some inflection. [dubious – discuss] Yet another case, the locative, is limited to a small number of words. Most adjectives are not declined. Vocative case is used to address a person or thing. Many nouns can actually function as members of two genders or even all three, and the gender classes of English nouns are usually determined by their agreement with pronouns, rather than marking on the nouns themselves.

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