The main point that we have wished to bring out is that the whole body of the motifs represent a consistent tissue of interrelated intellectual doctrines belonging to a primordial wisdom rather that to a primitive science; and that for this wisdom it would be almost impossible to conceive a popular, or even in any common sense of the term, a human origin. Lévy-Bruhl began his lifework as a professional philosopher in search of “unimpeachable truths” that would be universally human in their validity. We do not say that the modern savage exemplifies the "primordial state" itself, but that his beliefs, and the whole content of folklore, bear witness to such a state. The nature of folk art is, then, itself the sufficient demonstration of its intellectuality: it is, indeed, a "divine inheritance. It can very well be that the workman or the peasant mother is no longer conscious of the meaning of a precaution that may have become a mere superstition; but assuredly we, who call ourselves anthropologists, should have been able to understand what was the idea which alone could have given rise to such a superstition, and ought to have asked ourselves whether or not the peasant by his actual observance of the precaution is not defending himself from a dangerous suggestion to which we, who have made of our existence a more tightly closed system, may be immune. Lévy-Bruhl goes on the point out very justly that all this implies a conception of time and space that is not in our sense of the word "rational": one in which both past and future, cause and effect, coincide in a present experience. Two closely connected questions must first be disposed of. The primitive mind does not differentiate the supernatural from reality but uses "mystical participation" to manipulate the world. It is characterized in the first place by a "collective ideation"; ideas are held in common, whereas in a civilized group, everyone entertains ideas of his own. conjunction of father and mother, the moteher’s period, and the presence of the Gandharva: of which the tow first may be called dispostive and third an essential cause. It is argued that what is true for the primitive mentality is unrelated to experience, i.e., to such "logical" experience as ours. The significance of the metal pin, and that of the thread left behind by the needle (whether or not secured to a button that corresponds to the eye of the needle) is the same: it is that of the "thread-spirit" by which the Sun connects all things to himself and fastens them; he is the primordial embroiderer and tailor, by whom the tissue of the universe, to which our garments are analogous, is woven on a living thread. The explanation of the possibility of disagreement in such a matter has much to do with the belief in progress, by which, in fact, all our conceptions of the history of civilization are distorted. Theol. Aristotle's doctrine that "Man and the Sun generate man" (Physics 11.2), that of JUB 111.10.4 and that of the Majjhima Nikaya, may be said to combine the scientific and the metaphysical theories of the origin of life: and this very well illustrates the fact that the scientific and metaphysical points of view are by no means contradictory, but rather complementary. Up. The relation between the popular and the learned metaphysics is moreover, analogous to and partly identical with that of the lesser to the greater mysteries. The invisible force is what gives meaning and cause to the empirical reality before them. The metaphysician may, like the primitive, be incurious about the scientific facts; he cannot be disconcerted by the, for they can at he most show that God moves “in an even more mysterious way than we had hitherto supposed.”. The content of folklore is metaphysical. Primitive mentality by Lévy-Bruhl, Lucien, 1857-1939. What seems strange to us, however, is that for the primitive mentality the rite is a "prefiguration", not merely in the sense of a pattern of action to be followed, but in the sense of an anticipation in which the future becomes a virtually already existent reality, so that "the primitives feel that the future event is actually present": the action of the force released is immediate, "and if its effects appear after some time it is nevertheless imagine — or, rather, in their case, felt — as immediately produced. In any case, the preliminary rite of “mimetic magic” is an enactment of the “formal cause” of the subsequent operation, whether it be the art of agriculture of that or war that is in question, and the artist has a right to expect that the actual operation, if carried out on this plan, will be successful. So long as the material of folklore is transmitted, so long is the ground available on which the superstructure of full initiatory understanding can be built. We have touched upon only a very few of the “motifs” of folklore. We no longer live among the shapes which we had fashioned within: we have become mere spectators, reflecting them from without.”. The characteristic pronouncements of anthropologists on the "primitive mentality", of which a few may be cited, are often very remarkable, and may be said to represent not what the writers have intended, the description of an inferior type of consciousness and experience, but one intrinsically superior to that of "civilized" man, and approximating to that which we are accustomed to think of as "primordial." Schmidt remarks that “In ‘heathenish’ popular customs, in the ‘superstitions’ of our folk, the spiritual adventures of prehistoric times, the imagery of primitive insight are living still; a divine inheritance … Originally every type of soul and mind corresponds to the physiological organism proper to it… The world is conceived as being partner with the living being, which is unconscious of its individuality; as being an essential portion of the Ego; and it is represented as being affected by human exertion and suffering … Nature-man live his life in images. Natural or artificial objects are not for the primitive, as they can be for us, arbitrary symbols of some other and higher reality, but actual manifestations of this reality; the eagle or the lion , for example, is not so much a symbol or image of the Sun as it is the Sun in a likeness (the form being more important than the nature in which it may be manifested); and in the same way every house is the world in a likeness, and every altar situated at the center of the earth; it is only because we are more interested in what things are than in what they mean, more interested in particular facts than in universal ideas, that this is inconceivable to us.

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