They hunt by day in a sit-and-wait manner. When threatened the European roller chick will vomit a foul-smelling orange liquid onto itself in order to deter a predator. Landscape determinants of European roller foraging habitat: implications for the definition of agri- environmental measures for species conservation Ineˆs Catry1,2,3 • Joana Marcelino1 • Aldina M. A. Franco2 • Francisco Moreira1,3 Abstract Across much of Europe, farmland birds are declining more than those in other habitats. Their body is stocky. The family is sometimes considered to include the ground rollers and cuckoo rollers. Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub, 2. Some populations migrate to Africa through India. Oak and pine woodlands with open areas are prime breeding habitat, but farms, orchards, and similar areas with mixed vegetation are also used. The European roller chick will vomit a foul-smelling orange liquid onto itself to deter a predator. It is a monogamous species, the somersaulting courtship flight of the breeding pairs is a characteristic sight in early summer. Rollers winter primarily in dry, wooded savanna and bushy plains. Blue roller, Common roller, Eurasian roller, Roller. Adult European rollers eat about 25 insects per day, while juveniles are able to consume up to 21. Wing of a European Roller is a vibrant watercolour painting by German Renaissance artist Albrecht Durer Albrecht Durer made several watercolours of deceased birds, such as Dead Blue Roller . European rollers cover over 10,000 km when migrating from Europe and Asia to sub-Saharan Africa and in spring they repeat this mammoth journey again. The European roller is very similar in appearance and behavior to the Abyssinian roller, which appears to be its closest relative. The European Roller breeds throughout temperate, steppe and Mediterranean zones characterized by reliable warm summer weather. In the African wintering grounds it prefers open, dry savannah habitat with adequate tree coverage. Oak and pine woodlands with open areas are prime breeding habitat, but farms, orchards, and similar areas with mixed vegetation are also used. The European Roller breeds throughout temperate, steppe and Mediterranean zones characterized by reliable warm summer weather. The smell also warns the parents on their return to the nest. European rollers are monogamous and form pairs. There have been fairly rapid population declines across much of its range, so it was formerly classified as near threatened by the International Union for Conservation of Nature in 2005; it has, however, been downlisted to least concern in 2015, as population development was judged to not meet the criteria for a more urgent rating at this time. Overall, currently, this species is classified as Least Concern (LC) on the IUCN Red List but its numbers today are decreasing. In southern Africa, it has a scattered distribution range, preferring savanna, such as broad-leaved and Acacia woodland. It prefers lowland open countryside with patches of oak Quercus forest, mature pine Pinus woodland with heathery clearings, orchards, mixed farmland, river valleys, and plains with scattered thorny or leafy trees. The European roller is a long-distance migrant, wintering in Africa south of the Sahara in two distinct regions, from Senegal east to Cameroon and from Ethiopia west (with observations in the Degua Tembien mountains)[10] to Congo and south to South Africa. In Africa, a similarly wide range of dry, open land with trees is used. They nest in an unlined tree or cliff hole and lay up to 6 eggs from May to June. Rollers inhabit In Europe, the breeding population consists of 75,000-158,000 mature individuals. The nominate subspecies breeds in northern Africa from Morocco to Tunisia, in southern and east-central Europe, and eastwards through northwestern Iran to southwestern Siberia. Within its breeding range it is commonly found in open country side with forest patches and often close to farmlands, orchards and vineyards, as well as pine forests with clearings. European rollers are famous for the acrobatic displays they perform with the twists and turns and which give them their English name. They start to fly after 25 to 30 days but still depend on their parents for about 3 weeks more. With the help of over 7,000 of the world’s best wildlife filmmakers and photographers, conservationists and scientists, Arkive.org featured multi-media fact-files for more than 16,000 endangered species. It winters primarily in dry wooded savanna and bushy plains, where it typically nests in tree holes. According to the IUCN Red List, the total population size fo the European roller is around 200,000-600,000 individuals, including 100,000-499,999 mature individuals. European rollers are striking in their strong direct flight, with the brilliant blue contrasting with black flight feathers. It gives a raucous series of calls when nervous. [15][16][17] Rollers from eastern European populations also spend the winter period in southern Africa, but further east in Zambia, Zimbabwe, and Botswana. Their diet includes large insects, small reptiles, rodents, and even frogs.

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